martes, 22 de mayo de 2012

Medidor de Distancias por Ultrasonidos Ping

El Ping es un medidor de distancias por ultrasonidos de Parallax. Detecta la distancia que hay con el objeto más cercano que hay en frente del sensor (hasta 3 metros). Funciona enviando una ráfaga de ultrasonido y esperando a escuchar el eco que se produce cuando esta rebota con el objeto. La placa Arduino envía un pulso corto para disparar la detección y espera por un pulso en el mismo pin. La duración de este segundo pulso es el tiempo que ha tardado el ultrasonido en ir entre el sensor y el objeto y de vuelta al sensor. Conociendo la velocidad del sonido, ese tiempo se puede convertir en distancia.


Hardware Requerido

  • Arduino Board
  • (1)Ping Ultrasonic Range Finder
  • Cable para enganchar

Circuito

El pin de 5V de el PING))) se conecta al pin de 5V de la placa Arduino, el pin de masa, se conecta al pin de masa del Arduino y el pin SIG (señal) se conecta al pin digital 7 en el Arduino.

Esquemático

Código

/* Ping))) Sensor
  
   This sketch reads a PING))) ultrasonic rangefinder and returns the
   distance to the closest object in range. To do this, it sends a pulse
   to the sensor to initiate a reading, then listens for a pulse 
   to return.  The length of the returning pulse is proportional to 
   the distance of the object from the sensor.
     
   The circuit:
    * +V connection of the PING))) attached to +5V
    * GND connection of the PING))) attached to ground
    * SIG connection of the PING))) attached to digital pin 7

   http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Ping
   
   created 3 Nov 2008
   by David A. Mellis
   modified 30 Aug 2011
   by Tom Igoe
 
   This example code is in the public domain.

 */

// this constant won't change.  It's the pin number
// of the sensor's output:
const int pingPin = 7;

void setup() {
  // initialize serial communication:
  Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop()
{
  // establish variables for duration of the ping, 
  // and the distance result in inches and centimeters:
  long duration, inches, cm;

  // The PING))) is triggered by a HIGH pulse of 2 or more microseconds.
  // Give a short LOW pulse beforehand to ensure a clean HIGH pulse:
  pinMode(pingPin, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW);
  delayMicroseconds(2);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, HIGH);
  delayMicroseconds(5);
  digitalWrite(pingPin, LOW);

  // The same pin is used to read the signal from the PING))): a HIGH
  // pulse whose duration is the time (in microseconds) from the sending
  // of the ping to the reception of its echo off of an object.
  pinMode(pingPin, INPUT);
  duration = pulseIn(pingPin, HIGH);

  // convert the time into a distance
  inches = microsecondsToInches(duration);
  cm = microsecondsToCentimeters(duration);
  
  Serial.print(inches);
  Serial.print("in, ");
  Serial.print(cm);
  Serial.print("cm");
  Serial.println();
  
  delay(100);
}

long microsecondsToInches(long microseconds)
{
  // According to Parallax's datasheet for the PING))), there are
  // 73.746 microseconds per inch (i.e. sound travels at 1130 feet per
  // second).  This gives the distance travelled by the ping, outbound
  // and return, so we divide by 2 to get the distance of the obstacle.
  // See: http://www.parallax.com/dl/docs/prod/acc/28015-PING-v1.3.pdf
  return microseconds / 74 / 2;
}

long microsecondsToCentimeters(long microseconds)
{
  // The speed of sound is 340 m/s or 29 microseconds per centimeter.
  // The ping travels out and back, so to find the distance of the
  // object we take half of the distance travelled.
  return microseconds / 29 / 2;
}




Fuente de Consulta:
http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Ping

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